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Turkish garden too, like Turkish House and Turkish Kitchen, is a unique structure, which has come from thousands of years through various cultures and geographies. First Turkish cities and balıks started to be formed with the transition to city life. It is known that mostly already formed settlements were used in the establishment of these first cities. It is said that Toğu Balık [Eastern City] cited in Orhun Inscriptions was one of the first Göktürk cities.

Even though it is said that there should have been gardens in Turkish Cities due to their contacts with the Chinese, there is no remnant of them today. When we take into account the improved state in culture and arts of Uighurs whom we know had formed a nation whose education level was especially high under the influence of Maniheism and Zoroastrianism, we have to admit that thier cities too reflect this understanding. For instance, on a wall-fresco we see an Uighur house situated in a garden surrounded by high walls and this house also embraces an orderly garden. Later on, many authors tell that Turkish cities either in Middle Asia or in the geography of Iran were covered with vineyards and orchards.

We know that after Islam, Turkish Cities had also vineyards and orchards. Near Bust Castle south of Afghanistan today, Gazne Palace Leşker-i Bazar, which was completed may 21st 1036, consisted of many courts big and little and even contained a hunting park [firdevs]. We can consider the remnant of a kiosk takes place in the middle of the big court of Leşker-i Bazar Palace as a "Cehar Bağ", namely a sample from the early era of garden arrangements divided into 4 parts by two axes. Isfahan City and Melikşah Palace bacame an inspiration for many Turkish and Iranian poets, in the Great Seljuk Era. In the same period garden culture and entertainments of Horasan Cities like Semerkant, Nişabur, Rey were the most important inspiration sources of Eastern Literature.

Following the settlements of Turks in Anatlia, we know that Seljuk had palaces built in Konya, Kayseri and along the shores of Beyşehir Lake. There is no document remained today expect the remnants of these palaces. But the written sources belonging to its era provide some definitions to reach us. For example, it is told that the place of Mevlana's tomb today was a bed of roses. As it was in Horasan and Iran before, the monarchs and prominent people of those times have been burried in the monumental tombs built in these kind of gardens and these gardens in time have been turned into graveyards. It is said, the beds of roses of Konya were in time also turned into cemetaries. Another reminder belonged to the era of Seljuk, is a pool in the court of Sivas Gök Medrese with a 5,60 meters diameter and 22 corners. It can be considered as a modest sample of “Cehar Bağ” arrangement. There are clear explanations in Ibn-i Bibi about Keykubadiye Palaca and its gardens which are told to be built between 1224-1226. "... It would not be a lie if I say God made the heaven appear in this place. The weather was very mild there ... He used to make the sidelock of fountain smell like ambergris, mix the Hoten Musk with rose ... It was in a spring of water. A green sea was flowing in front of it, like a sky without clouds ... There were lots of fruits on the trees. The paradise called Fidevs used to envy the weather there. The earth became a jewel, Kubadiye also became another paradise because of the flowers. A fountain used to flow rose water in front of a mind refreshing place. This fountain used to take water from a Kevser river. Near the fountain 1001 nightingales used to sing on a rose. The air used to smell like ambergris because of the scent there."

Travelling through Anatolia in 1330s, Ibn-i Batuta tells that the cities like Antalya, Burdur, Milas, Konya were with vineyards and orchards, and the houses were mostly in gardens. For example, he tells about how he was brought to the house of a man he visited in Birgi. "... Bringing us his home in a garden, he put us up as a guest. The roof of the house was in the shadow of trees... I found him in a place in his garden. There was a pool, the water was flowing here from a porcelain covered channel made of white marble." He also tells about Seljuk "... There were vine and jasmin arbors in both banks of the river that flows through the city."

Although they arranged big sized gardens in the settlement areas before Anatolia, we see that the gardens and palaces realized by Turks in Anatolia are smaller. The memories of Spanish ambassador Clavio about bigness and perfection of Semerkant gardens in the reign of Timur, reach today. They are in big numbers like Nakşi Cihan, Bağ-ı Çınar, Yurdu Hacı, Bağ-ı Dilkuşa, Bağ-ı Meydan and Bağ-ı Şimal. The magnificence of the gardens, arranged generally in Cehar Bağ style and in very big sizes, the samples pf which we would see afterwards in Delhi, Ağre, Lahor, Isfahan and Tahran are in an uncomparable perfectness with the western gardens of the same era.

It is a pity that we are not informed sufficiently about the gardens of the palaces built in Bursa and then in Edirne with the establishment of Ottoman State and in parallel of this the gardens of the statesmen. Charles Textier tells about Bursa Palace that he visited in XIX th Century "... The residence part of the palace is a unique building; the other buildings are the kiosks in the garden in an extended order, this arrangement reminds of Edirne Palace. Today, there are only the spoiled and dried water channels remained from the old magnificent gardens. These gardens have been surrounding the graceful palace of Sultan Murad." Bursa palace fell into disfavor with built of Edirne Palace and conquest of İstanbul and it was used as a residence of the shahzadahs assigned to Anatolia. It is known that Ahmed I. stayed in this palace when he came to Bursa in 1605. Though it was repaired from time to time, it was almost a ruin in the middle of the XVII th Century, as Thevenot also explaines.

Bursa Miri Gardens are mentioned in a firman dated to 1575. But they were not shown interest for such a long time, so Kadi Of Bursa was wanted to in form the Palace about their kinds and income.

Conquesting Edirne, Murad I started to build a place here and this place was completed in 1367. The old Edirne Palace, builtin an area called Kavak Meydanı, was renewed in era of Yıldırım Bayezid and it covers a square-like rectangle area, the sides of which are nearly 5000 steps [1.000.000 m²]. This palace, which took place in the gardens at the beginning, was tightened because of the additional constructions built in time and especially the additions built in era of Kanuni, and it was turned into a group of buildings without vineyard and orchards.

It is known the grove in the garden of the Palace was known Chicken Forest and also before Ottoman State, it was used as a hunting area of the Byzantium Emperors. We learn that Chicken Forest was used as o picnic spot by people of Edirne in spring and summer, though it was included by the Palace. Being largened by kiosks and pleasure-houses built during the periods of Mehmet the Conquerer, Süleyman the Magnificent and Ahmed I., Edirne Palace reaches the most magnificent era of its in the reign of Mehmed IV. As it would be seen in water colored panorama painted by Dr. Osman Rıfat Bey in 1923, Edirne Palace is an unsymmetrical area with grass and trees and harmonious with nature. Evliya Çelebi, who visits these gardens in XVII th Century, says that "... But rose and hyacinth and mişk-i Rumi, tulip, violet, hatayı and sweet basil and jasmine and redbud zerren and daffodil and wild rose, gillyflower, peony, clove pink in the gardens of Edirne and many colorful and scentful flowers and vegetables were to be seen especially the exhibition of trees from these were not present in the appetite of Konya, Malatya hag and selective Adelye;" As itis seen, being an excursion spot, the garden of Edirne Palace is also a utilitarian place. Besides various plants and flowers, there are also vegetable fields from which the need of the Palace was maintained and extra fruids and vegetables were sold to the people. In this period, such a great love of flowers exists. According to Evliya Çelebi, trustee of Mehmed Çelebi Mosque "... in season of rose, narcissus, hyacinthes and liliums many vases, that are full of the mentioned flowers, are put among the lines of worshippers, both inside and outside of the Mosque is lightened and smelt like musk."

Except palace gardens, there are many gardens in Edirne, one of the most important ones of these belongs to Bayezid Şifa Hastanesi [Bayezid Hospital]. Towerds the end of the XVIII th Century, Lady Montesqiu who gives information about residences in Edirne tells in a letter: The river is running down of my room's windows. My garden is full of long cypresses... all Edirne ground is ornamented with gardens. All of the banks of the river is planted with fruit trees. Troops of gents enjoy themselves under these trees every night. These kinds of small groups who are listening to the plash of water are seen everywhere. This is such a general pleasure, it was influenced even gardeners ... I went into a pavillion surrounded by all erected and silvered cages. The gentle shadows of the trees inside were protecting here from sunlight, the jasmins and honeysucles which embraced the trunks of the trees were letting out a sweet insence. And also pleasure of watching flowing waters from a white marble pipe into 3 or 4 pools was being added to these beauties. Every kind of flowers, that seemed to overflow fro the basket and fall down suddenly, were drawn on the ceiling.

Destroyed after Latin occupation and gradually increased the population, İstanbul became poorer because of the plague epidemic in 1348 and blockade of Yıldırım Bayezid for five years since 1391. It has been observed that the suburbs of the city werealso emptied. In empty area of the city, agriculture was being done to maintain the needs. When the city was conquested in 1453, the old, magnificent city life had disappeared. There were fields, vineyards and olive gardens in places of most of the buildings. In this situation, it is not possible to mention about Byzantium gardens and their splendid arrangements.

The first palace built in İstanbul is Saray-ı Atik-i Hümayun which was built between 1454-1458 on the area that İstanbul University exists today. N. Nicholay who came to the city between 1551-1553 says the sides of Old Palace was 2000 steps. So, the palace covers an area nearly 10.000 m². We do not know much about the gardens of Old Palace. According to the informations the origin of which is unknown Michel Baudier says there were delicate gardens and fountains in the palace. In illustrated documents we meet the informations that we do not meet in written documents. The Palace's garden shows itself with its big trees and colorful flowers in a İstanbul Miniature of Matrakçı Nasuh, in 1535. Then, building of Saray-ı Cedid-i Hümayun or Topkapı Palace today is started. An area from Ahırkapı to Yalıköşkü is suronded with a rampart and a construction work of hundreds of years was attempted. New Palace, which was built on a ridge stretching from the top of the hill through the sea, consists of kiosks and pleasure-houses situated around courts, appropriate to the old understanding. We see in the drawings of Hünername [1584] the 1st and 2nd courts were empty and they were meadowy places except some trees. On the other hand, we see the III. and IV. Courts and valley grounds in both sides of the Palace are with trees, vineyards and orchards. Arranged on different sets and open to the scene the IV. Court where the kiosks Bağdat, Revan, Mecidiye and Sofa take place reflects Ottoman spirit with its unround plan items. Especially Gülhane Garden in Marmara direction is a bed of roses as its name, it is a vegetable and fruit field at the same time. Science and art were used to be taught in the buildings that exists in these areas which were called “Hasbahçe” [private garden]. Mimar Sinan and Mimar Mehmet Ağa are known to be graduated from the education units of this place.

The biggest nature arrangement done in İstanbul in Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror's are is Belgrad Forest. Protecting this area, which was arranged as Hassa Forest because of the conquest of Belgrade, reached today. The third biggest palace in İstanbul is Üsküdar Place. This palace that was started to be built in reign of Süleyman the Magnificent is a group of constructions consisted of kiosks and pleasure-houses. They are used to meet the promenade customs of sultans in summertime. Du Loir, who has been in İstanbul between 1639-1641, says the gardens are not as much ornamented as the rooms of the palace that is protected by Bostancı's under command of a Baltacı, there has been no flower beds and mostly vegetables-like plants have been grown. He says there is almost no ornamenting tree, only cyprees and pine trees are noticed but these kinds of trees are met everywhere in the city. Eye of a European perceives Turkish garden in this way. A garden with the least interference to the nature, vegetable and fruit fields besides flowers, in a utiliarian attitude, arranged as it exists in nature, not a construction in an order seperated from each other with definite borders. Besides Üsküdar Palace, Fenerbahçesi Palace and İskender Çelebi Palace are the important summer residences with vineyards and orchards.

There is an important unit in the Organization of the Palace about the upkeep of Ottoman Palace's gardens and vegetable fields. The young boys were taken to Bostancı Association in Recruitment times; they were used to be educated here besides upkeep of vegetable fields and gardens, from time to time assigned promoted according to their service level.

The widest information about gardens and excursion spots of İstanbul is brought to today by Evliya Çelebi, who says all the settlements all the settlements around İstanbul, Galata, Eyüp and Boğaziçi with vineyards and orchards, describes all of the Hassa Gardens of the era at the same time. Some other sources, which are not known as much as Evliya Çelebi, also give us information about İstanbul Gardens. In the florist message called "Netayicu'l-ezhar" written by Ubeydullah Efendi the preacher of Şehzade Mosque in 1689 we see the important people of the time who developed a passion of floristry. Ebussuud Efendi, İbrahim Hanzade Ali and Mehmed Beyter, İmamzade Mehmed Çelebi, Yeniçeri Efendisi İsmail, etc. , and Ali Çelebi, who wrote Şüküfename-i musavver in 1667, also give information about the flowers and florists of the era.

Yirmisekiz Mehmet Çelebi who went to France as an ambassador in the reign of Ahmed III., under impression of the gardens, he has seen in that country, influenced Nevşehirli İbrahim Paşa the grand vizier of that time and the first western style garden arrangement was attempted around Sadabad Palace. Designing and arranging the epoch opened by French architect Melling caused "western garden" styles became widespread gradually. Later on, this garden style, which was spreaded with Balyan Family's architect members effects, is not like traditional Turkish gardens the clearest property of which is "living in" any longer. This new arrangement is not a part from nature which gets richer with rose or tulips and is shadowed by trees but a magnificent "parter" where different kinds of the plants are situated in a complexity and the trees take place in an order. The second half of the XX th Century is a part of time İstanbul and the traditional tissue is widely destroyed and eliminated. Though all these inconvenient conditions, traditional İstanbul protects its green tissue to some extent. İstanbul is in trees and green more than the other European cities today. We do not meet huge and empty areas that we see in St. Petersburg, Paris, Rome, Berlin. In fact, although it is completely messed up, good or bad, well cared or neglected there is almost a tree in every square and street. It is possible to see old garden-city sight in the residence of Bosphorus. The woodless and green-longing parts of today's İstanbul are the suburbs that are formed by unlicened constructions. Even cemetaries in the traditional settlement areas transfer information today about the green tissue of the city. Especially the big and small kiosks in the quarters permitted fot settlement in the second half of the XIX th Century like Çamlıca, Altunizade, Erenköy, Göztepe and Bostancı, and vineyards and orchards around them helped the green areas of the city enlarge. Garden arrangements in Bosphorus contain a special impotance in formation of Turkish garden. The rides that lost its natural soil at the en of the erosions in thousands of years have been terraced rationally and gardens have been made over these terraces. Beylerbeyi Palace, Arnavutköy, Hasan Halife Gardens etc. are the samples of these kinds of constructions. Some parts of Bosphorus ridges, which have been used as coppieces for hundereds of years, were taken under protection because they were bestowed upon the pashas who were close to the Place in the XIX th Century and today's groves were formed. Hüseyin Avni Paşa, Fethi Ahmed Paşa, Abraham Paşa, Sait Halim Paşa Groves were created at the end of these events.

Turk's love of flowers has not been committed only to the nature. The love of flowers and nature has also been reflected to our traditional decorative arts; a rich design understanding and stylization is seen in porcelains, ornamenting art of paper, marbling, illumination and miniatures, decoration of our residences. Stylized flower motives have been used frequently also in headstones and ornaments of buildings in the old times. Ahmed III. Yemiş Room, Yenicami Hünkar Mahfili [Sultan's loge in New Mosque], Amucazade Mansion Divanhane, Birgi Çakır Ağa Mansion, Antalya Tekelioğlu Mansion etc. are the buildings of ours in which flower and fruits were used as the decoration items of inner ornaments.

Besides written documents, also visual documents inform us about the formation of Turkish Garden and flower passion of Turks. Surname-i Hümayun [1582] and Levni Surnamesi what was prepared for circumcision feast of shahzadahs of Sultan Ahmed III show us the greatness of flower passion of the past. To summarize it; it is our biggest wish to try to know without exaggeration the gone-on understanding of Turkish garden in today's Anatolian gardens [Safranbolu, Kula, Birgi, Göynük etc.] which European effect has not influenced as much as it has done in İstanbul and İzmir, to attempt a serious try enriching with western effects to recreate and keep it live purified from degeneration.